In the realm of elite sports, there is a growing emphasis on nurturing athletes to thrive not just as competitors, but as individuals. Sport serves as a powerful platform for developing skills that can propel individuals forward in various aspects of life, including education, work, and day-to-day living. This holds true not only for elite athletes but also for young people.
But what exactly are life skills?
Life skills can be defined as a range of transferable skills essential for everyone's well-being and success (Gould and Carson, 2008). They empower children to adapt and display positive behavior, enabling them to effectively navigate the demands and challenges of everyday life. Life skills play a vital role in healthy development and prepare children for the future, equipping them to thrive in the world they inhabit.
How do children acquire life skills?
Interestingly, it is often not the sport itself that directly teaches life skills (as these skills can be learned through other hobbies), but rather, the sport experience provides a context in which young people can transfer their learnings from one environment to other areas of their lives. This includes school, home, and eventually the workplace as they grow older.
Sport acts as a facilitator for numerous life skills, such as:
Problem solving & decision-making
While coaches and parents often prioritize the development of sport-specific skills—focusing on the technical, tactical, and physical aspects of the game and striving to propel young athletes to the next level—consider your own experiences in education, work, and sports. How much of success in those domains relies on the softer skills categorized as social skills, life skills, or psychological skills? How can we ensure that young athletes develop these skills alongside their sport-specific abilities?
Are they truly developing life skills?
Coaches and parents can enhance life skills through motivation and support within a young person's network. For instance, effective communication about a young person's sporting experiences, not only identifying areas for improvement but also encouraging reflection on positive aspects and setting progressive goals, can help children excel in these "softer skills." This approach ensures they develop positive life skills and, most importantly, enjoy their time in sports even when physical, technical, or tactical improvements take longer than anticipated.
The 5Cs (Harwood, 2008; Harwood, Baker, and Anderson, 2015)
Extensive research conducted by Harwood and colleagues on nurturing psychological performance and life skills in youth sports has led to the identification of the 5Cs. These key elements, as outlined in Harwood's video for parents in sport week, encompass:
Commitment: The health of a child's motivation, consistently displaying a strong work ethic, embracing challenges, viewing setbacks as learning opportunities, and valuing self-improvement through reflective practices that enhance self-awareness.
Communication: The quality of a child's interpersonal skills, emphasizing the value of providing and receiving support, fostering respectful connections and relationships, sharing and seeking information, and employing effective H.E.L.P.A. (Help, Encourage, Listen, Praise, Acknowledge) techniques.
Concentration: The ability to focus and control attention, including awareness of where the focus should be—pre, during, and post-match—attending to task-relevant cues, objects, or people, staying on task amidst distractions, and refocusing after mistakes or when fatigued.
Control: Understanding and managing emotions, being aware of emotions and their impact on performance, utilizing strategies (such as imagery, self-talk, and breathing) to create an optimal mental, physical, and emotional state, maintaining composure under pressure, and being sensitive to the emotions of others.
Confidence: The quality of a child's self-belief, maintaining a positive physical presence and body language, adopting a "no excuses" mentality, staying engaged and involved, drawing from personal accomplishments and self-improvements to bolster confidence.
While many young people strive for high performance in the sports environment, they may not always consider the softer skills mentioned earlier, such as Harwood's 5Cs, which contribute to their personal development and performance enhancements.
Next time you engage in a conversation with a young person involved in sports, inquire about the skills they have acquired from their sports environment that align with Harwood's 5Cs. Encourage them to explore how these skills can be transferred to other areas of their lives, broadening their understanding of the valuable life lessons embedded within their sporting experiences.